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rāmādi mūrtiṣu kalā-niyamena
tiṣṭhan nānāvatāram akarod
bhuvaneṣu kintu kṛṣṇaḥ svayaṁ
samabhavat paramaḥ pumān yo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam
ahaṁ bhajāmi [Bs. 5.39]

This is a verse from Brahma-
saṁhitā in which the incarnation
of Lord Rāmacandra is described.
Rāmādi. Not only Rāma, but
there are many other,
innumerable incarnations. They
are compared with the waves of
a river. As the waves of the river
or the waves of the ocean cannot
be counted, similarly, how many
incarnations are there of the
Supreme Lord it is not possible
to count. But out of them, the
principal names are mentioned in
the śāstras. Therefore it is said
rāmādi. Rāmādi means Rāma and
also other, many incarnations.
And they are existing. Not that
one incarnation appeared and it
is finished. No. Not like that. Just
like Lord Rāmacandra appeared
on this planet, say millions of
years before. He appeared in the
Treta-yuga. Treta-yuga means…
We have passed only five
thousand years of this age, Kali-
yuga. Before that, there was
Dvāpara-yuga. Dvāpara-yuga
means 800,000 years. And before
that, there was Tretā-yuga, which
continued for twelve hundred
thousands of years. That means
at least two million years before
Lord Rāmacandra appeared on
this planet.

So now Lord Rāmacandra
appeared in Ayodhyā. There is a
place in Ayodhyā, in northern
India. There He appeared. As
Kṛṣṇa appeared in Mathurā…
That is also northern India. And
Mathurā is about ninety miles
down southward from New Delhi.
You have heard the name of New
Delhi, the capital of India. So
Ayodhyā is also situated about
five hundred miles northeast of
New Delhi. So Lord Rāmacandra
appeared on this day. Today is
called Śrī Rāma Naumi. On the
ninth day of the moon Lord
Rāmacandra appeared. His father
was the king of Ayodhyā, and he
had three wives. So out of… No.
He had two wives. So out of two
wives he got four sons.
Rāmacandra is the eldest son.
The life and activities of Lord
Rāmacandra is… [break] …in a
book which is called Rāmāyaṇa.
You have heard the name of
Rāmāyaṇa. Rāmāyaṇa is also
accepted as history. Vedic
literatures are histories also. The
Purāṇas, the Śrīmad-
Bhāgavatam, Mahābhārata, and
Rāmāyaṇa, they are counted
amongst the history. The history
of Rāmacandra is that His father
wanted to retire. Daśaratha,
Mahārāja Daśaratha. And he
decided to enthrone Lord
Rāmacandra and retire. So
everything was settled, but just
one day before, his youngest wife
turned the whole thing into
different way. Sometimes
Mahārāja Daśaratha was
suffering from what is called
whitlow, some trouble in the
finger? And this queen served
him very nicely, and he was
pleased. And he said, “My dear
Śarmiṣṭhā, if you want some
benediction from me, I can give
you.” And she replied that “I shall
ask you for the benediction when
I require it. Not now.” So just one
day before Lord Rāmacandra’s
coronation, she approached her
husband Mahārāja Daśaratha
and reminded him, “My dear
husband, you promised to give
me some benediction, and I told
you that I shall ask you when I
require it.” Mahārāja Daśaratha
said, “Yes, I remember. You want
some benediction just now?” She
said, “Yes.” “And what is that?”
She said that “Rāmacandra
cannot be seated on the throne.
My son should be coronated,
Bhārata.” He was surprised. It is a
big demand. So he said, “All
right. That will be done. Your
son.” Because formerly, the
kings… Not only formerly, even
up to date, there are many
kṣatriya kings in India. They have
more than one wife. And they
are, naturally, there is rivalry
between different wives. So the
same thing. Human psychology is
the same. Even two million years
ago the same mentality was
there, and she asked that “My
son should be the king, not
Rāmacandra.” Rāmacandra
happened to be the son of
Kauśalyā, the elder queen.

So Mahārāja Daśaratha agreed
and called for Rāmacandra. “My
dear boy, your…” She asked also
that… She was very diplomatic.
She wanted that Rāmacandra go
to forest for fourteen years. The
idea was political, that “The king
may agree to install my son just
now. Now, after a few days, this
Rāmacandra may come with His
army, and there may be some
difficulty to continue the
kingdom.” So she wanted that
Rāmacandra should go to the
forest and He should not come
back till the end of fourteen years
from this day. So Mahārāja
Daśaratha agreed. Because he
was kṣatriya. Just see the
promise. A kṣatriya never goes
back from the promise, never
refuses any challenge. If a
kṣatriya is challenged by
somebody, that “I want to fight
with you,” oh, he cannot refuse.
This is kṣatriya spirit. He cannot
say that “I am now busy.”
Suppose somebody comes to
you, that “I want to fight with
you.” You may say, “What
nonsense fight? I have no time.
We are in the temple.” But a
kṣatriya cannot deny that. A
kṣatriya at once must accept.
“Oh, yes. Come on.” And the
weapon should be, if he has no
sword or weapon, he should be
supplied weapon and fight. This
is kṣatriya spirit. They were highly
charitable and chivalrous and
keeping promise and with a
great tendency for ruling over.
They shall rule over.
Administrators. Their business

There are different prescription
for different classes of men for
their livelihood. The brāhmaṇas,
they can pull on their livelihood
by six ways. Paṭhana paṭhana
yājana yājana dāna pratigraha.
Six. And they must be qualified
with twelve high qualities. We
have many times discussed. Out
of that qualification, truthfulness
is the first item for a brāhmaṇa. A
kṣatriya may speak lies. That is
allowed, because he has to be
diplomat, politician. But a
brāhmaṇa, oh, he’s not allowed
to speak lie. This is the system,
caste system or varṇāśrama
system. Everyone was trained.
Because these four classes of
men are required in a society. For
proper upkeep of society, one
class of men must be very
intelligent, highly qualified, with
all good qualities. They must be
trained in that way, ideal
character so that people can see
and follow them. Therefore
brāhmaṇas were taken to so
much respect because they’re
ideal character, learned, and
godly, knows the science,
spiritual science. Therefore
they’re held in high estimation
and topmost of the society. The
next, the administrator,
administrative class, kṣatriyas.
They are trained how to kill. The
kṣatriyas were allowed to hunt in
the forest to learn the art of
killing because that was necessity
for the kṣatriyas. Kṣatriya, if he…
If the king, if he finds somebody
is doing wrong, he can
immediately chop off his head if
he likes. The king was so
powerful. And it is not that if
there was some war, it is not that
the president or the king shall sit
down comfortably at home and
ordinary soldiers will go and lay
down their life. No. Formerly, the
king or the head of the state, he
should first of all go there in the
fight. You see in the picture, the
chief men of the fighting in the
Kurukṣetra, both sides, they were
arrayed, this side, that side, with
their chariot. Not that the head
man, the chief man, or the
commander is taking shelter
back side, protecting himself, and
poor soldiers are (chuckles)
thrown into the fighting. No.
These were kṣatriya spirit. And it
is necessary that a class of men
should be trained up in that way,
kṣatriya, fighting men. In India,
because this training was there
since a very long time, so there is
no difficulty in recruiting soldiers
there. There is a class of men,
they are very much forward in
fighting still. They are called…
Just like the Gurkhas, the
Nepalese. You have heard the
name of Nepal. Still a small state,
independent state. They are not
within India. Between China and
India. The whole Nepal
population, they are kṣatriyas.
Oh, they are very good fighters.
Similarly, the Sikhs, the Jātas.
There are classes. So they’re
always forward for fighting. And
you’ll be surprised that the British
Empire was voluntarily liquidated
because they lost India. The
Britishers, they understood that
because we are now losing India,
there is no more possibility to
keep our eastern empire.
Therefore they liquidated. Why?
Actually, the whole British Empire
were being administered or
managed by Indian soldiers,
these Sikhs and Gurkhas. They
extended their empire. After
taking their position with India,
they extended British Empire in
the Middle East and Far East
simply by these Sikhs and Gurkha
soldiers. They got supremacy on
the Burma and everywhere.

So there is necessity of a class of
fighting men. You are finding in
your country difficulty in
recruiting because the recruiting
process is wrong. You are
recruiting from persons… You are
training persons just like śūdras,
and you want them to fight. How
they can fight? It is not possible.
So as it is stated in the
Bhagavad-gītā, that cātur-
varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa
karma vibhāgaśaḥ… [Bg. 4.13]
Lord Kṛṣṇa said that “The four
classes or orders of the society,
brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra,
is planned by Me according to
work and quality.” So this kṣatriya
quality men is also required, the
brāhmaṇa quality of men is also
required, the mercantile
community, they are also
required, and the laborer class,
they are also required. Of course,
laborer class, they do not require
any training. Laborer class means
one who cannot do anything,
neither become brāhmaṇa, nor
become kṣatriya, nor become
vaiśya. That means the last
balance of the population, they
are called laborer class, śūdra.
Śūdra means one who has no
training. Śūdra has no saṁskāra.
Saṁskāra means training.
Everyone is accepted as śūdra by
birth. Janmana jayate śūdra.
Janmana means by birth. By
birth, everyone is born a śūdra, a
fourth-class man. It is to be
accepted, and actually so. Just
like a child, innocent child, what
does he know? He has to be
trained. Either you train him as a
brāhmaṇa or train him as a
kṣatriya or train him as a vaiśya.
Or otherwise, he is śūdra already,
born śūdra. Śūdra has no
training. Everyone, the basic
principle, basic foreground,
everyone, it is accepted śūdra.
Now, if you train him as a
brāhmaṇa, then he becomes a
brāhmaṇa. If you train him as a
kṣatriya, then he becomes a
kṣatriya. If you train him as a
vaiśya… So I think this is, this
system is very scientific so that if
you want help of a really
intelligent man or God realized
man, it is ready, the brāhmaṇa
class. Just like if you require the
help of a lawyer, we have got so
many lawyers. If you require the
help of medical man… Because
there are trained men. Similarly,
the society requires to train a
certain class of men to become
brāhmaṇas. Just like we are
training the Kṛṣṇa conscious. The
Kṛṣṇa consciousness is meant for
the brāhmaṇas. They are not
meant for fighting because they
are not being trained for fighting.
They have been trained for
becoming brāhmaṇas. Who is
brāhmaṇa? Brahma jānāti iti
brāhmaṇa. The four divisions are
described like this. Janmanā
jāyate śūdraḥ, everyone is born
śūdra. That is accepted.
Saṁskārād bhaved dvijaḥ. Now if
you train him, never mind in
which family he’s born, you have
to train him. Just like boys are
sent to school for being trained.
So everyone is accepted as śūdra,
but you now train him. He goes
to the guru-gṛha.

Guru-gṛha means teacher’s
house. Formerly, for being
trained, there was no such big
scale school and colleges. Every
village… Still, fifty years before in
India, in every village there was a
small school conducted by the
brāhmaṇa, and the village
children would be trained up
there. So he was sent for training.
And there was no school fee. The
boys will go there, and on behalf
of the teacher or spiritual master,
they will go, brahmacārī, door to
door, and beg and bring forth
alms, rice, dahl, grains, and
everything. That was the system.
There was no school fee. There
was no problem how to send a
boy to the school. Saṁskāra.
Now he’s trained up. The teacher
sees the psychology of the boy,
in which way he should be
trained. Either he should be
trained as a vaiśya or he should
be trained as a kṣatriya. So
everyone was trained like that,
but generally, the son of a
kṣatriya… Just like Mahārāja
Rāmacandra or Arjuna, from the
very beginning they were trained
as kṣatriya. Naturally, if
somebody is the son of a medical
man his father trains him to
become a medical man in future.
That is the natural tendency. If
the boy is different altogether
that is another question, but
naturally, that is the tendency. So
a kṣatriya’s son was trained as
kṣatriya. A brāhmaṇa’s son was
trained as a brāhmaṇa and a
vaiśya’s son was trained as a
vaiśya, and śūdra had no training.
So gradually this became a caste
system. Brāhmaṇa’s son became
brāhmaṇa. Because formerly, the
training was there. But when it is
vitiated, although a person born
in the family of a brāhmaṇa, he is
doing the work of a śūdra. So
according to Vedic scripture, one
is classified according to his work
and quality, not by birth. That is
the classification of śāstra. Just
like in the Bhagavad-gītā the
Lord says cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā
sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ
[Bg. 4.13]. Guṇa means quality
and karma means work. One
must be qualified for the work
and he must actually work. Then
he is counted classified into that,
I mean to say, category. Just like
if you are simply trained or
educated as a lawyer, and if you
are not practicing in the court,
nobody comes to you to consult
as a lawyer. Nobody cares for
you. You must be practicing also.
Similarly, to become a brāhmaṇa
means first of all, he must know
what is Brahman and he must be
actually situated in the activities
of Brahman. So devotional
service are activities of Brahman.
Activities in Kṛṣṇa consciousness
means activities in Brahman.
Brāhme carati iti brahmā
brahmacārī. Carati means acts.
Actually, he acts in life, applies
the principles of brāhmaṇa in his
life, he is called brahmacārī. So
these were the trainings.

So just see how the training was,
that a kṣatriya cannot refuse his
promise. So Mahārāja Daśaratha,
he fulfilled the promise of his
youngest wife and asked his son,
eldest son Rāmacandra, “My dear
boy, You’ll have to go to forest
for fourteen years. That is the
desire of Your youngest mother.
And I promised that I shall fulfill
her promise, uh, request. So
please accept.” Rāmacandra said,
“Yes father, I am ready.” Just see.
This is the quality. Out of the six
opulences of God, this is one

aiśvaryasya samāgrasya vīryasya
yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ jñāna-vairāgyayoś
caiva ṣaṇṇāṁ bhāgam itīṅganā

How one becomes God? God is
not manufactured by vote. There
are definition who is God. God
must be the proprietor of all the
riches. Aiśvaryasya samāgrasya.
Samāgra means all. Nobody can
compete with Him. Here, in this
world, material world, I am rich
man, and there is another rich
man who can compete with me.
There is another rich man who
can compete with him. But
nobody can compete with God in
richness. That is one qualification
of God. Nobody can say that “I
am richer than God.” Therefore
in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said
mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat asti
kiñcid dhanañjaya. Mattaḥ
parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti
dhanañjaya [Bg. 7.7]. Dhanañjaya
is a name of Arjuna, and Kṛṣṇa
said that, “My dear Arjuna, there
is nobody greater than Me.” So if
anyone claims that he is God, he
must prove by practical example
that nobody is richer than him.
That is the first. But
unfortunately, we are accepting
so many Gods. A rascal in the
street, he also claims that “I am

So similarly, the other
qualification, nobody can be
stronger than God, nobody can
be wiser than God, nobody can
be more beautiful than God, and
nobody can be more renouncer
than God. So here Rāmacandra,
Lord Rāmacandra exhibited the
quality how He renounced the
whole kingdom simply on the
order of His father, His
obedience to father. He could
have argued with His father, “My
dear father, you, simply for
keeping your promise and
actuated by the dictation of a
woman, you are doing this. Let us
stop it. Everyone is expecting that
tomorrow My coronation will be
there, and they love Me so
much.” Because He… Just like
Kṛṣṇa was so much loved,
similarly, Lord Rāmacandra was
the life of the people. They were
very much expecting that
Rāmacandra was going to be
enthroned tomorrow. So how
they were celebrating, how they
were decorating the whole city.
Everything. He never argued. He
accepted immediately: “Yes,
father. I am ready.”

So then one of the brothers,
Lakṣmaṇa, He also requested
Rāmacandra, “My dear brother,
You also take Me. I am Your
constant companion. I must go
with You.” So He said, “That’s
Your wish. Voluntarily, if You
want to come, You can come
with Me.” Then Sītā, His wife,
young wife, She also said, “I’ll go
with You.” Rāmacandra
requested His wife, “Oh, you
cannot go with Me. It is very
difficult. You are a king’s
daughter, and you are brought
up in so nice way, and you are so
beautiful. You cannot go. You
cannot take the trouble of living
in the forest.” So she said, “Oh, I
am Your wife. Married wife. So I
must go even if You go to hell.”
This is ideal wife. She could have
refused: “Oh, Your father has
ordered to go to forest. You can
go. I shall go to my father’s
house or I shall remain here.” No.
This is ideal wife. She must be
prepared to accept any
circumstances of the husband.
Not that when the husband is
rich the wife is very faithful, and
when he has come down to be
poor or he’s going to forest the
wife gives up his company. No.
Wife means better half. She must
abide. Just like, it is said, just like
a shadow follows the reality,
similarly, the wife is the shadow
of the husband. Wherever the
husband goes, she must go.
Whatever the husband wants,
she must carry out. Of course, in
this country this interpretation is
taken differently, that wife is
made a slave. But actually, it is
not so. When Sītā was kidnapped
in the jungle, Rāmacandra
expected that, that she was
beautiful, she was young, and
“We shall be in open jungle. It
may be some demons may
come,” and actually it so
happened. So for Sītā, Lord
Rāmacandra massacred the
whole family of Rāvaṇa. Only for
Sītā. So as the husband, so the
wife. The wife was so faithful that
she could not remain alone. She
must accompany the husband
even in the forest. And the
husband was so faithful that, “Oh,
my wife has been kidnapped.” So
He massacred the whole family
of Rāvaṇa.

So these are ideal history how…
Rāmacandra, Lord Rāmacandra
appeared on this world to
educate or to place ideal
example of a king. How the king
should be. Therefore when there
is good government… The
example is given, Rāma-rājya.
Rāma-rājya. It is the kingdom of
Lord Rāma. Because everyone
was happy, everyone. There are
so many instances in the life of
Rāmacandra. One brāhmaṇa…
Not brāhmaṇa exactly.
Somebody came to Rāmacandra.
Because at that time there was
no court like this, that you have
to go to a court and apply with
stamp fee. Then your judgment
will be delivered after six years. It
is not like that. Anyone who has
got some complaint, he should…
The king used to sit in the open
audience, and the citizens were
allowed to approach the king
and place their complaints.
Because there was no complaint
practically. Everyone was happy.
Very minor complaint. So
somebody came to Rāmacandra,
and he charged Rāmacandra,
“My dear king, my son has died.
How is that, in the presence of
his father, son can die? There
must be something wrong in
Your government.” Just see. The
charge is “Why my son has died
before my death? This is
unnatural.” So there was nothing
unnatural. The king was
responsible even for severe cold,
severe heat. That we get from
history of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
That is stated. So the kings were
so much responsible. They were
always thinking of the happiness
of the citizens, and the citizens
were also so nice. One citizen
approached Lord Rāmacandra
and His next assistant, His
brother, Lakṣmaṇa, informed Him
that “He is a brāhmaṇa. You were
absent on Your tour for, I think
for a fortnight or a month, and
this brāhmaṇa has not eaten
even a drop of water during Your
absence.” Why? “Because he
comes here to see You, darśana.”
Just like we come here in the
temple to see the Deity. So Lord
Rāmacandra was present
personally. So he used to come.
After seeing Rāmacandra,
offering his obeisances, then he
would go home and take
something, his breakfast. That
was his vow. And because he
could not see for a fortnight or a
month Lord Rāmacandra because
He was out on political tour, he
did not eat even. Just see. The
citizens were similar to the king.
So at that time, there was a
statue of Rāmacandra which was
being worshiped in the family
from Mahārāja Ikṣvāku. Mahārāja
Ikṣvāku, the son of Manu,
happens to be the forefather of
the family in which Rāmacandra
appeared. So he was devotee of
Lord Rāma, and he was
worshiping the statue of Lord
Rāma. So that statue was being
worshiped by the family one after
another. But when Rāmacandra
was actually present He kept that
statue in the closet of the room,
and when this brāhmaṇa
approached and Rāmacandra
was informed by Lakṣmaṇa that
he is so steady and strong in his
vow, so Rāmacandra ordered that
he may be delivered that statue
so that in My absence he can
offer respect to the statue and do
with this. That form, I mean to
say, statue, or arca of
Rāmacandra is still existing in
South India. It is being worshiped
from that time.

So these were the dealings of
Rāmacandra. Then He, His
younger brother Lakṣmaṇa and
His wife went to the forest, and
His wife was kidnapped by the
diplomacy of the demon Rāvaṇa,
and there was fight between
Rāma and Rāvaṇa. Rāvaṇa was
very, materialistically, he was very
strong. But the thing is for
fighting with Rāvaṇa,
Rāmacandra did not come back
to His kingdom and take His
army. No. He did not come back
because He was ordered to live
in the forest. So He organized
army with the jungle animals, the
monkeys. The monkeys. He
fought with Rāvaṇa, an organized
materialist, with the monkeys.
You have seen the picture. And
He constructed a bridge between
India’s last point to the other
side. Ceylon is considered to be
the kingdom of Rāvaṇa. So there
was a bridge, and the stones
were floating.

So there are so many historical
incidences in the life of
Rāmacandra, and we should
remember, because if we
remember why we are observing
today fasting for Rāmacandra…
There were many kings like
Rāmacandra. Because the kings
were trained in that way.
Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira was also as
good as Rāmacandra, and
Mahārāja Parikṣit was as good.
There were many such kings. But
we are not concerned because
He was a king. He is the King of
all kings, parameśvara. Because
He is God, therefore we are
observing today. Rāmādi-mūrtiṣu
kalā-niyamena tiṣṭhan [Bs. 5.39].
So He is not original form of God.
The original form of God is Kṛṣṇa,
and Kṛṣṇa expands Himself in
various other forms. Advaitam
acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam
[Bs. 5.33]. Ananta-rūpam means
millions and millions. The Manu
is also incarnation of Kṛṣṇa. So in
one day of Brahmā there are
fourteen Manus. So Brahmā lives
for one hundred years. Just see
how many incarnation of Manus
are there even for one Brahmā,
and there are innumerable
Brahmās also. So, as stated in the
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that nobody
can count how many incarnations
are there, but some of the chief
incarnations are mentioned, and
Lord Rāmacandra is one of them.
So Lord Rāmacandra, He killed
Rāvaṇa and He installed his
brother. His brother was devotee,
Vibhīṣaṇa. So He did not go to
conquer Ceylon, because He was
emperor. He went to punish that
culprit Rāvaṇa, and He installed
his younger brother Vibhīṣaṇa in
that… And He came back with
Sītā, and again He was installed
after fourteen years, and His
brother was so faithful that so
long His eldest brother was away,
Rāmacandra requested Him that
“Your mother wants that You
should be king, and I also wish
that in My absence You should
be king.” Bharata, He was so
faithful brother, He replied, “No.
You are king. So long You are
living, nobody can be king. So I
cannot be king.” Then He
requested, “At least You
administer.” Because after the
departure of Lord Rāmacandra,
Mahārāja Daśaratha died out of
the shock because Rāmacandra
was very pet son, eldest son. He
was going to be king, and by his
order He was sent to the forest.
The father could not tolerate the
shock. He died.

So Rāmacandra’s life, God’s
activities, pastimes, if we hear,
that means we are associating
with Rāmacandra. There is no
difference between His form, His
name, His pastimes, and Himself.
He’s absolute. Therefore either
you chant the holy name of
Rāma or you see the statue of
Rāma or you talk of His pastimes,
transcendental pastimes,
everything, that means you are
associating with the Supreme
Personality of Godhead. So we
take advantage of these days
when the incarnation of God
appears or disappears, and we
try to associate with Him. By His
association we become purified.
Our process is purification. Kṛṣṇa
consciousness means simply we
are purifying our consciousness.
From the birth, as I have
explained, everyone is śūdra.
Śūdra means one who laments.
That is called śūdra. For a slight
loss or slight inconvenience, one
who laments, he is called śūdra.
And brāhmaṇa means one who
tolerates. A śūdra has no
toleration. So kalau śūdra
sambhava. Kalau means… This
age is called Kali. So it is the
statement of the śāstras that in
this age the whole population is
śūdra. And formerly also, by his
birth, everyone was considered
śūdra, but there was training,
saṁskāra. At the present
moment, there is no saṁskāra,
there is no training. The training
is only for earning livelihood. No
other training. How one can earn
money and enjoy senses—that is
the training at the present
moment. But actually, to make
successful the human life or the
mission of human life, the Vedic
culture is very nice. And by
spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness,
by adopting the process of Kṛṣṇa
consciousness, you can revive
that cultural life, sublime life. If
not wholesale, if there are a few
people trained up in this line, and
they become ideal examples to
the society, immense benefit can
be derived from their examples
of life.