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ANNOUNCER: The following is a
class on the Bhagavad-gītā As It
Is, 13th chapter, text number 1
and 2, given by His Divine Grace
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupāda, recorded August
10th, 1973 in Paris, France.


"Translation. Arjuna said: O
my dear Kṛṣṇa, I wish to know
about prakṛti (nature), puruṣa
(the enjoyer), and the field and
the knower of the field, and of
knowledge and the end of
knowledge. The Blessed Lord
then said: This body, O son of
Kuntī, is called the field, and one
who knows this body is called the
knower of the field.”


prakṛtiṁ puruṣaṁ caiva kṣetraṁ
kṣetra-jñam eva ca etad veditum
icchāmi jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ ca keśava

This is the special prerogative of
human being, that he can
understand the nature, this
cosmic manifestation, and the
enjoyer of the nature, and he can
be fully conversant about what is
the object of knowledge, jñeyam.

There are three things, jñeyam,
jñāta, and jñāna. The object of
knowledge, the knower is called
jñāta, and the object of
knowledge is called jñeyam. And
the process by which one can
understand, that is called jñāna,
knowledge. As soon as we speak
of knowledge, there must be
three things: the object of
knowledge, the person who is
trying to know and the process
by which the object of
knowledge is achieved.

So some of them… Just like the
materialist scientists, they are
simply trying to know the prakṛti.
But they do not know the puruṣa.
Prakṛti means the enjoyed, and
puruṣa means the enjoyer.
Actually enjoyer is Kṛṣṇa. He’s the
original puruṣa. That will be
admitted by Arjuna: puruṣaṁ
śāśvatam. “You are the original
enjoyer, puruṣam.” Kṛṣṇa is the
enjoyer, and every one of us, the
living entities, and the prakṛti,
nature, everything, is to be
enjoyed by Kṛṣṇa. That is
Kṛṣṇa’s… Another puruṣa, we
living entities. We are not puruṣa.
We are also prakṛti. We are to be
enjoyed. But in this material
condition, we are trying to be
puruṣa, enjoyer. That means
when the prakṛti, or the living
entities, wants to become puruṣa,
that is material condition. If a
woman tries to becomes a man,
as that is unnatural, similarly
when the living entities, who is by
nature to be enjoyed…

The example, as we have given
several times, that this finger
captures some nice foodstuff, but
actually the fingers are not
enjoyer. The fingers can help the
real enjoyer, namely the stomach.
It can pick up some nice
foodstuff and put into the mouth,
and when it goes to the stomach,
the real enjoyer, then all the
prakṛtis, all the parts of the body,
all the limbs of the body, they
feel satisfaction. So the enjoyer is
the stomach, not any part of the

There is a story in Hitopaniṣad,
Hitopadeśa, from which the
Aesop’s Fable is translated.
There, there is a story:
udarendriyānām. Udara. Udara
means this belly, and indriya
means the senses. There is story
of udarendriyānām. The senses,
all the senses met together in a
meeting. They said that: “We are
king, senses…” (aside:) Why it is

“We are working.” The leg said:
“Yes, I am, whole day, I am
walking.” The hand says: “Yes, I
am working whole day, wherever
the body says: “You come here
and pick up the food” bringing
things cooking. I cooking also.”
Then the eyes, they said that: “I
am seeing.” So every limb, length
of the body, they made a strike
that, “No more we are going to
work only for the stomach who is
eating only. We are all working,
and this man, or is stomach is
eating only.” Then the, the
strike… Just like the capitalist and
the worker. The worker under
goes strike, no more working. So
all these limbs, parts of the body,
they observed striking, and after
two, three days, when again they
met, they talked amongst
themselves that: “Why we are
becoming weak? We cannot
work now.” You see. The legs also
said: “Yes, I am feeling weak.”
Hands also feeling weak,
everyone. So what is the cause?
The cause… Then the stomach
says: “Because I am not eating.
So if you want to remain strong,
then you must give me to eat.
Otherwise… So I am the enjoyer.
You are not enjoyer. You are to
supply things for my enjoyment.
That is your position.” So they
understood: “Yes, we cannot
directly enjoy. It is not possible.”

The enjoyment must be through
the stomach. You take one
rasagullā, you, the fingers, you
cannot enjoy. You give it to the
mouth, and when it goes to the
stomach, there is immediately
energy. Not only the fingers
enjoy, the eyes, all other parts,
they feel satisfaction and
strength also. Similarly the real
enjoyer is Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says:

bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-
loka-maheśvaram suhṛdaṁ
sarva-bhūtānāṁ jñātvā māṁ
śāntim ṛcchati [Bg. 5.29]

They are after śānti, peacefulness,
peace of the mind. Where is
śānti? They are working hard, day
and night, to get peace of the
mind. No, that is not possible.

How it is possible? Just try to
understand three things only.
Then you’ll get something. What
is that? Kṛṣṇa says that: “I am the
enjoyer, You are not enjoyer.”
Nobody’s enjoyer. If you
understand this, that Kṛṣṇa is the
enjoyer. One, out of the three
items, one, bhoktā. Everyone in
this material world, they are,
everyone is trying to become
enjoyer, the first-class enjoyer,
number one enjoyer. But it is not
possible. Nobody can enjoy. Only
Kṛṣṇa is the enjoyer, and if we
cooperate with Kṛṣṇa, through
His enjoyment, we can enjoy. This
is our position. So this is real

Every rascal is trying to become
enjoyer. This is the material
world. Everyone is after sense.
Even the so-called prakṛti,
woman, the propensity is to
enjoy. Puruṣa. Therefore here in
this material world, even though
a woman is dressed like a
woman, his mind is puruṣa. He
wants, she wants to enjoy. Here
the woman wants a man.
Although superficially it is
supposed that man is the
enjoyer, the woman is enjoyed.
but actually the woman also
wants to enjoy the man. That is
māyā. A prakṛti cannot enjoy,
become puruṣa. So in the
Bhagavad-gītā, the living entities
are described as prakṛti.

apareyam itas tv (anyāṁ)
prakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām jīva-
bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho yayedaṁ
dhāryate jagat

So the Māyāvādī philosophers,
they do not know the secret; they
wants to become God, enjoy. Our
philosophy is different. We do
not wish to become enjoyer. We
want to be enjoyed. That is our
real position. We want to serve
Kṛṣṇa. We want to offer
everything to Kṛṣṇa. We do not
want to enjoy anything ourself.
That is Vaiṣṇavism. So here there
are in the material world, there
are so many universities and
economic development plans,
but all these rascals, they do not
who will enjoy. Who is enjoyer,
and who is enjoyed, they do not
know. They think that: “We are
enjoyer.” Every nation, every
community, every man is
struggling: “I am enjoyer.” This is
called māyā.

We get, a certain type of
body to fulfill our certain type of

The… Yesterday evening we were
talking with that cardinal. So
when I said that: “If you eat meat
like animals, like the tigers or the
fox, then Kṛṣṇa will give you the
facility to become, next life a
tiger and fox and cat and dog,
like that.” These are stated. It is
not my manufacturing word.
These you’ll find. You are human
being. You must act like a human
being. For human being, this
Bhagavad-gītā is there. Kṛṣṇa is
instructing to a human being,
Arjuna. Not a cat, not a dog. So
knowledge means it is meant for
the human beings. Not for the
cats and dogs. Laws means it is
meant for the human being. Laws
means: “You should do this, you
should not do this.” This is law, as
state law, or any law. Nature’s
law. Everywhere. So human
being, for human being, Kṛṣṇa is
advising: patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ
toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā
prayacchati. Because every
human being must be a devotee
of Kṛṣṇa. That is his first business.
So for a devotee, Kṛṣṇa says:
patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ
yo me bhaktyā prayacchati. This
is the order.

Therefore next śloka is called:
Bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān uvāca
means Bhagavān, the Supreme
Lord, the Supreme Person, the
Supreme Opulent, He’s ordering.
And we are servants. We are
predominated. We are not
predominator. Therefore it is our
duty to abide by the orders of
the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. And that is called
religion. Religion does not mean
the so-called rituals. That is
formalities, they’re also required,
but the real purpose of religion is
to abide by the orders of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
That is religion. Religion means
to abide by the orders of Krishna,
God. That is religion. So you may
become… You may be a
Christian, you may be a
Muhammadan, you may be a
Hindu, or Buddhist. It doesn’t
matter, whatever you may be.
Whether you are abiding by the
orders of God. Then you are

Not that God, or God’s
representative says: “Thou shalt
not kill.” And I go on killing in the
slaughterhouse. And when asked
why I am killing, I give my, some
interpretation of my own. This
rascaldom is going on. Nobody’s
religious. Because nobody’s
following the orders of God.
Neither… Anybody… Māṁ ca
vetti na kaścana. Kṛṣṇa says that:
“I know past, present, future,
everything.” That is confirmed in
the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
Janmādy asya yataḥ anvayāt
itarataś ca artheṣu abhijñaḥ
[Bhāg. 1.1.1]. Abhijñaḥ means
one who knows. And Kṛṣṇa
confirms it: “Yes, I know, past,
present, future, everything.” That
is Kṛṣṇa. That is God. Therefore
His order is supreme. So we have
to follow His order. That is real
religion. Puruṣa. Puruṣa is giving

Just like in, in ordinary dealings,
in our family affairs. The husband
gives order, wife: “You should
manage like this. You should do
like this.” Similarly prakṛti, we are
all prakṛtis, we are abide by the
orders of the Supreme. Therefore
Arjuna is asking the… (aside:)
What is that sound?

Arjuna is asking the Supreme
Personality of Godhead that “You
teach me.” That is perfect
teaching. If you learn something
from Kṛṣṇa, or from His
representative, that is perfect.
That is perfect knowledge. All
other knowledge that you gather,
that cannot be perfect. Because
unless you are perfect, how you
can give perfect knowledge? So
every one of us is imperfect.
Because we have got imperfect
senses. So with imperfect

Just like the so-called scientists,
philosophers, they propose their
theories; “I think,” “It may be like
this,” “Perhaps…” These are not
knowledge. These are all
nonsense. You must speak
definitely if you know. Just like
the śāstra says: jalajā nava-
lakṣāṇi. Definitely. Nine hundred
thousand species of life within
the water. Why? You could say:
“About nine lakhs.” No. Nine
lakhs. Not about. More or less.
No. Not like that. That is
knowledge. That is perfect…
Jalajā nava-lakṣāṇi sthāvarā
lakṣa-viṁśati. And the trees,
plants, they are two millions.
Never says: “approximately.”
“Maybe,” “perhaps.” No. This is all
nonsense. We don’t accept such
knowledge. So… But the, in the
material world, these things are
going on. Any rascal will give
some theory. That will be
accepted and he’ll be offered
Nobel Prize.

So that is condemned in the
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: śva-viḍ-
varāha-uṣṭra-kharaiḥ saṁstutaḥ
puruṣaḥ paśuḥ. So according to
Bhāgavata direction, these Nobel
Prize winners are exactly like
dogs, camels, hogs, śva-viḍ-
varāha-uṣṭra and asses. And they
are praised by similar animals.
That’s all. The Nobel Prize winner
and the Nobel Prize giver. Both
of them are like dogs hogs
animal and asses. That’s all. This
is a fact. They… If, if a person has
written some theory, evolution of
chemicals, and all rubbish things,
it is very nice thing for the so-
called dogs and camels, but
those who have got eyes to see,
one who has heard from Kṛṣṇa,
he’ll understand this is nonsense.
How, from chemical, you can
produce life? When he’s asked:
“Well, sir, if I give you these
chemicals, can you produce life?”
Immediately he says: “That I
cannot say.” Why?

It is actually happening. In
California University. One big
professor, came, lecture, and he
said that:. “By combination of
these four chemicals, life has
begun.” So one of our students,
he’s also doctor in chemistry, he
asked him immediately: “Sir, if I
give you all these chemicals,
whether you can produce life?”
His answer was; “That I cannot
say.” Why? “That I cannot say.”
Then why you are proposing all
this nonsense? If you do not
know definitely… “No, we are
trying.” “In future…” This is going
on. “In future.” But in the
common saying: “Trust no future,
however pleasant.” Why future?
Now, what you have learned,
speak that.

Therefore Arjuna is asking not to
a third-class so-called
philosopher and chemist and
economist, but to Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa.
Because whatever answer Kṛṣṇa
will give, that is fact. And śāstra
means the things which have
been spoken by Kṛṣṇa. That is
śāstra. And guru means who
speaks… Guru means who speaks
on behalf of Kṛṣṇa. Sādhu-śāstra-
guru. This is called. So Kṛṣṇa is
asked. And the answer for Kṛṣṇa,
which He gives, that is final. No
experiment. No “future.”
Whatever answer He gives, that is
final. Otherwise, why people read
Bhagavad-gītā so carefully? Not
now. Thousands of years.
Thousands of years. Not only in
India, in other countries also. So
answers, real answers are there.

So this chapter, thirteenth
chapter, is very important
chapter. So many rascals are
there. They’re talking so many
things. But if you want real
answer, that is described by
Kṛṣṇa to the six questions, Kṛṣṇa
immediately answers in nutshell.

The first question was: prakṛtiṁ
puruṣaṁ caiva. Prakṛtiṁ puruṣam
will be answered later on. The
first answer He gives: idaṁ
śarīraṁ kaunteya kṣetram ity
abhidhīyate [Bg. 13.2]. You want
to learn what is the field of
activities. Field of activities is not
the football ground. This body is
field of activities. When I desire
to play in the football ground,
then I go to the football ground.
But real desire is manufactured
within. Idaṁ śarīram. We, we are
having different types of body
because we want to work
differently. That is the plan. I ask
so many people. They say: “God
has created this world.” That’s
fact. But as soon as we ask, “Why
He has created this earth? Why
He has created this universe?
What is the purpose?” they
cannot answer. They cannot give
any reply. Because they do not
know, imperfect knowledge. But
anything you do, anything…

Suppose if you construct a very
nice house. So I can ask you:
“What is the purpose of
constructing this nice house?”
You will say: It is for purpose.”
Either we shall reside, or rent it.
“It is meant for residential
purpose.” Similarly why this
cosmic manifestation, this
universe… Not only one universe,
millions of universes. Material
world is also not very small.
Material world is only one-fourth
manifestation of the whole
creation. And that one-fourth…
Ekāṁśena sthito jagat. Kṛṣṇa
says: “The whole material world is
only one-fourth creation.” What
is that one-fourth creation? That
is replied in the Brahma-saṁhitā:
yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-
aṇḍa-koṭi [Bs. 5.40]. Jagad-aṇḍa-
koṭi. When Kṛṣṇa, you have seen
Kṛṣṇa’s, what is called? Aureum?


PRABHUPĀDA: Auram, yes. So
that is prabhā, Kṛṣṇa’s prabhā. So
just like the sun has got a
shining, similarly Kṛṣṇa has got.
So it is borrowed from Kṛṣṇa’s
shine. So yasya prabhā
prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi [Bs.
5.40]. Jagad-aṇḍa means these
universes. There are millions, koṭi.
And each universe… Jagad-aṇḍa-
koṭi. Yasya prabhā prabhavato
jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣv aśeṣa-
vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam [Bs.
5.40]. And each universe there
are innumerable planets. This is
material creation.