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ANNOUNCER: The following is a
class on the Bhagavad-gītā As It
Is, 2nd chapter, text number 17
given by His Divine Grace A. C.
Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupāda, recorded on August
23, 1973 in London, England.

PRADYUMNA: “[Know that which]
pervades the entire body is
indestructible. No one is able to
destroy the imperishable soul.”

PRABHUPĀDA: avināśi tu tad
viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam
vināśam avyayasyāsya na kaścit
kartum arhati.

Now it is very clearly enunciated,
the nature of the soul. Any
sensible man can understand.
This is practical. Formerly, all the
verses, they were more or less
theoretical: dehino ’smin yathā
dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
[Bg. 2.13]. This is, it may be
taken theoretical. Not
theoretically, but actually the
fact, but still less intelligent
cannot understand that there is a
soul within this body. But here it
is explained very clearly. Avināśi
tu tad viddhi. Tat—that thing
which is spread all over the body.
Avināśi tu tad viddhi, tad—that,
avināśi—imperishable. So what is
spread all over the body?
Consciousness. That is spread all
over the body. Everyone can
understand that if I pinch any
part of my body or your any part
of the body, you feel pain. Or
similarly, if you get some other
facilities, pleasure, so pains and
pleasures are felt so long there is
consciousness. Any man can
understand. And as soon as the
consciousness is not there,
sometimes we are made
unconsciousness by drugs, by
chloroform and other anaesthetic
medicine, or by nature,
unconscious stage.

There are three stages: jāgarti,
svapna, suṣupti. Anyone has got
this experience. One stage is that
you are awakened, another stage
is sleeping, and another stage is
unconscious. Three stages.
Jāgarti, svapna and suṣupti, the
Sanskrit name. Jāgarti, when you
are awakened, our consciousness
is very acute, very strong. In
sleeping stage, there is
consciousness, but it is not so
active. And unconscious stage
means consciousness is some
way or other subdued, not
working. Three stages. So death
means that unconsciousness for
a long period. That is death.
Because the soul is eternal. It will
be explained. There is no birth
and death. So when this body is
annihilated, so the soul remains
unconscious for a period, seven
months for a human being.
Seven months unconscious stage
within the womb of the mother.
After seven months, the
consciousness revives. Just like if
you have got an experience
under chloroform,
unconsciousness. The surgical
operation takes place, you do not
understand, you do not perceive
pains and pleasure, but you
remains for a certain hours
unconscious. Then, gradually,
dream comes. Just, from
unconsciousness the dream
comes. And from dream, you are
awakened. As you go down from
awakening stage to dream,
dream to unconsciousness,
similarly, you come up also, from
unconsciousness to dream, from
dream to awakening conscious

So death means when this body
is lost, gross body, the soul
remains in the subtle body—
intelligence, mind and ego. That
subtle body carries him to
another body. But those who are
not intelligent, they do not
understand what is the subtle
body, although it is clearly said
subtle body means mind,
intelligence. You have got mind,
intelligence, everyone knows. But
these rascals, because they
cannot see mind and intelligence,
they think that this man is gone.
Mind, intelligence, everyone
knows that he has got mind. I
know you have got your mind, I
have got my mind, you have got
intelligence, I have got
intelligence. But I do not see
your intelligence; it is subtle. Just
like there is sky, but here is sky in
my front, but I do not see. The
things, as they become more
subtle and subtler, these gross
senses cannot experience.
Therefore, the soul is so subtle
that it is not possible to perceive
the presence of soul with these
material senses. So these rascals,
they simply say, “No, I cannot
see soul.” How can you see? That
is not possible? It is so minute
and so subtle that it cannot be
seen by this gross eye. Acintyāḥ
khalu ye bhāvā na tāṁs tarkeṇa

So Kṛṣṇa says, just imagine, tat,
that. Yena sarvam idaṁ tatam.
Idam, this body, tatam. Tatam
means expanded, spread. We
can understand the
consciousness that if I press, if I
pinch, or otherwise we feel pinch
or… That is consciousness. So
Kṛṣṇa clearly says that that thing
is avināśi, imperishable. Now
Kṛṣṇa has said previously that
we, I, you and all others, we
existed in the past. So we existed
in the past. That means we are
all individuals. In the past also,
we were individuals, and at the
present, we are individuals, and
we shall continue to be
individuals in the future. There is
no such thing as the Māyāvādī
philosophers or rascals, they say
that after liberation they all
intermingle, becomes a
homogeneous lump. No. Even
after liberation, we remain
individual, particles. It is not that
we mix up, homogeneous mixing
up. Even in matter, what to
speak of spirit. It will be
explained that spirit cannot be
cut into pieces. That means we
are all spirit soul. It is not we are
lumped together at one time,
now we have been cut into
pieces, and therefore we are
individual—this Māyāvādī
philosophy. It is not that. We are
individuals, sanātana, eternally.
That will be explained.
Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhutaḥ jīva-
loke sanātanaḥ [Bg. 15.7].
Eternally, we are individuals.

Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś
cetanānām. The Supreme Lord is
the supreme cetana, conscious.
Just like we were consulting
dictionary yesterday, “supreme
being.” Therefore, His
consciousness is also supreme.
As we are living being—not
supreme, subordinate—similarly,
God is also being, but the
supreme being. That is the
difference. Very simple thing.
You cannot say that “I am
supreme.” As these rascals say
that “I am God.” How you can be
God? Are you supreme? As soon
as we ask this question, “Are you
supreme?” “No.” Then how you
have become God? The supreme
means… That is also… We
consulted dictionary. The
Supreme means the “highest
authority.” So is any one of us
the highest authority? No.
Nobody is highest authority.
Everyone is under the grip of
material nature. How you can be
highest authority? But they
imagine, “Yes, I am high
authority. I am…” Meditate: “I
am the highest authority, I am
moving the sun, I am moving the
this,” simply rascaldom. This is
their meditation. Falsely think
that “I am the supreme, I am
controlling everything. The sun is
moving under my direction, the
everything, the water is, seas, I
mean to say, there under my
direction.” Simply… This is their
meditation. Impersonalists. Just
try to understand how much
foolish they are. Any sane man
will say that “I am moving the
sun, I am moving the moon, I
am moving the sea”? Any sane
man will say like that? Nobody
will say. Will you say? Anyone
here? That you are moving the
sun, you are moving the moon?
Who is there, anyone? Who can
say? Nobody can say. And still
these rascals they are claiming
that he has become God. God…
“We are all God.”

This rascal philosophy has killed
the whole world, atheism. So
many incarnation, gods, all false
theories only. This is going on. So
many gurus, all rascals. All
rascals. Take it for granted.
Anyone who is speaking against
the principle of Bhagavad-gītā,
he’s a rascal number one. That’s
all. Don’t give any credit. Tell him
on the face “Whether you accept
Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality
of Godhead?” If he says, “No,”
“Then you are rascal.” That’s all.
There is no exemption. At least
you must know that here is a
rascal. Because God is Kṛṣṇa, the
Supreme. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ
kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ
[Bs. 5.1]. Accepted by all
ācāryas, by all Vedic śāstra. And
when He was present Himself,
He proved Himself that He’s God.
Nobody was equal to Kṛṣṇa when
He was personally present.
Throughout the whole history of
Mahābhārata you can see.
Nobody was equal to Kṛṣṇa and
nobody was greater than Kṛṣṇa.
Many, many demons came to
fight with Him, to kill Him. Even
when He was a child, the Pūtanā
demon came to kill Him by
poisoning. But Kṛṣṇa is so kind
that Pūtanā smeared over her
breast poison and Kṛṣṇa sucked
the breast and sucked her life
also. But she was given
liberation, the position of mother.
Kṛṣṇa is so kind. That is supreme
consciousness. That, “However
this demon, Pūtanā, innocent or
ignorant, she came to kill Me
without knowing that I cannot be
killed, that is her ignorance. But
so far I am concerned, I have
touched her breast as mother;
therefore, she should be given
the position of mother, like
Yaśodā Mā.” This is Kṛṣṇa. He felt
Himself so much obliged because
this is service. Just like mother
gives service to the child without
any return. She gives from the
very beginning of our life within
the womb, the mother feeds the
child. The process is given by
nature, but mother feeds.
Therefore, when pregnant, the
mother should not eat any
pungent things because it will
give to the tender skin and heart
of the child. She should eat only
very simple things. But they have
no conscious. They are now
killing, what to speak of
maintaining the child very nicely
that “There is a child, my son or
my daughter. She must be
provided with all comforts in the
womb.” There is no motherly
affection even in this Kali-yuga.
In the material world, motherly
affection is considered to be the
highest form of love. But the Kali-
yuga is so polluted that mother is
also giving up her love for the
children. Just imagine what is the
position. Mandāḥ sumanda-
matayo manda-bhāgyā hy
upadrutāḥ [SB 1.1.10].

So this Kali-yuga so strong that it
attacks even the so-called
devotees also. Kali-yuga is very
strong. Therefore Caitanya
Mahāprabhu has recommended
that if you want to save yourself,
if you at all desire to take the
position of amṛta, if you are
interested… Nobody is interested.
Kṛṣṇa says sa amṛtatvāya
kalpate. That is the aim of life:
How I shall become immortal.
How I shall not become
subjected to the four principles of
distressed condition—birth,
death, disease and old age.
Nobody is serious. They are so
dull. Therefore they have been
described, manda. Manda means
so bad, so rascal that they have
no ambition of life. They do not
know what is the goal of life.
Manda. Manda means “bad.” And
sumanda-matayaḥ. And if some
of them, just to become little
recognized as very religious, he
will accept some rascal as guru,
magician, and eat everything, do
everything, and become
spiritualist, and his rascal guru
will say, “Yes, you can eat
anything. You can do anything.
Religion has nothing to do with
eating.” It is going on. The
Christian people, it is explicitly,
clearly said, “Thou shall not kill.”
But they are killing. Still, they are
very much proud, “I am
Christian.” And what kind of
Christian you are? You are
regularly disobeying the order of
Christ, and still you are Christian?

So everything is going on. Either
Christian, Mohammedan or
Hindu, so-called. All of them have
become rascal. That’s all. This is
Kali-yuga. Mandāḥ sumanda-
matayaḥ. They have created their
own imaginary religious principle,
and therefore they are
condemned. They do not know.
The life, the aim of life is to
realize God. This is human life.
But they are so much
embarrassed with this
uncontrollable senses that they
are going to the darkest region of
material existence. Adānta-
gobhiḥ. Adānta means
uncontrolled. They cannot control
the senses. They have become so
unfortunate that simple thing,
little effort, little austerity, to
control the senses. The yoga
process means to control the
senses. Yoga does not mean that
you show some magic. The
magic, magician also can show
magic. We have seen one
magician, he created immediately
so much coins—tung tung tung
tung. Next moment it is all
finished. So the life, they’re
missing the aim of life. Mandāḥ
sumanda-matayaḥ. Why? Manda-
bhāgyāḥ. They are unfortunate.
So you take it for granted. We
are trying, even our Kṛṣṇa
consciousness mission, we are
trying to awaken. Still they are so
unfortunate they cannot give up
sense gratification. So
unfortunate. Condemned,
unfortunate. Repeatedly we are
spending our gallons of blood—
“Don’t do this”—still they are
doing. Cannot give up even
sleeping. So condemned. Kali-
yuga. Mandāḥ sumanda-

So it is very difficult with these
rascals. Very, very difficult.
Therefore my Guru Mahārāja’s
Guru Mahārāja, Gaura Kiśora
dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, they were
not preaching. They were
disgusted that “I have no power
to reform these rascals. Better
don’t bother. Let them go to hell.
At least… Let them.” But still, my
Guru Mahārāja preached. He was
so kind. And he asked us also to
do the same thing. But it is very,
very difficult job. People are so
rascal, so condemned, so sinful.
It is very, very difficult to raise
them. Very difficult. Mandāḥ
sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā
hy upadrutāḥ [SB 1.1.10]. So
only those who are very
fortunate, they will understand
that “I am eternal,” avināśi, “I
am imperishable. I am put into
this condition of perishable
condition due to this my material
body.” So how to get out of it?
They have no ambition. Just like
dogs and cats. Simply sense
gratification. Kṛṣṇa is so kind,
how, very clearly explains. You
try to understand what is the

So who does not understand
there is consciousness all over
the body? Tad viddhi. Yena
sarvam idaṁ tatam. They’ll jump
over, “Yes, I am the Supreme
God.” God’s consciousness is also
spread all over. That’s all right.
But is your consciousness spread
all over the universe? Both of us,
we are conscious. But He is
supreme consciousness.
Therefore His consciousness is
spread all over the universe, all
over the creation. In the
Thirteenth Chapter, you’ll find
Kṛṣṇa says, kṣetra-jñaṁ cāpi
māṁ viddhi sarva-kṣetreṣu
bhārata: “I am also kṣetra-jñam.”
Supersoul. What is the difference
between Supersoul and soul?
Soul, consciousness, is spread all
over this body. You are soul, your
consciousness spread all over
your body. I am soul, my
consciousness spread all over the
body. But my consciousness not
spread all over your body, neither
your consciousness spread all
over my body. But God’s, Kṛṣṇa’s,
consciousness is spread over
your body and my body, His body
and everyone.

So Kṛṣṇa is the super or the
supreme because His
consciousness is spread all over
the universe. You cannot hide
anything from Kṛṣṇa. That is not
possible. You cannot hide.
Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ.
After all, you are making your
plan with your heart and soul.
The soul is there and the heart is
there, mind is there. Now we are
making plan. But you cannot hide
the plan from the consciousness
of Kṛṣṇa. He is sitting there. That
is superconsciousness. One, you
know the Aurobindo. He was
trying to get superconsciousness.
His philosophy is superconscious.
Everyone who is here knows
about Aurobindo. The
superconsciousness you cannot
get. That is not possible.
Superconsciousness is for Kṛṣṇa,
the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. Vedāhaṁ samatītāni.
Kṛṣṇa says, “I know everything.”
In the Bhāgavata it is said:
janmādy asya yato ’nvayād
itarataś cārtheṣv abhijñaḥ [Bhāg.
1.1.1]. The Absolute Truth is that
from whom everything is
emanating. And He knows
everything. Anvayād itarataś
cārtheṣu. We have explained
many times. Artheṣu. Just like I
am conscious. But I do not know
actually what is there within my
body, how it is constituted, how,
how many veins are there, how
the blood is becoming red, how…
We have no, actually,
information. I do not know what
is within this finger. I am
claiming it is my finger. Here it is
my finger, but I do not know how
the finger is constituted.
Therefore I am not abhijñaḥ.
Although there is my
consciousness, I am not
abhijñaḥ. Abhijñaḥ means expert
in the knowledge. That is called
abhijñaḥ. Very experienced. But
Kṛṣṇa is abhijñaḥ. That is
described in the Śrīmad-
Bhāgavatam. Kṛṣṇa is abhijñaḥ.
That is said. Janmādy asya yataḥ
[Bhāg. 1.1.1], in the Bhāgavata,
beginning. Janmādy asya yataḥ
anvayāt: indirectly or directly.
Anvayāt means directly. Itarataś
ca: or indirectly. We may know
directly that “This is my finger.”
But indirectly I do not know what
is the constitution of finger, how
it is working, how it is moving.
You do not know. I know directly
this is my hair. But indirectly how
I am cutting hair and again it is
growing, it is unknown. I say
these are my hairs, but I cannot
count how many hairs are there.

So I am conscious to a certain
extent only, not fully. I am not
abhijñaḥ. I am not very expert.
These are simple truths. But
these rascals are claiming that “I
am God.” The God is, means he
is conscious, not only conscious,
He’s abhijñaḥ, very expert,
knows everything, and svarāṭ.
Now, to get abhijñaḥ, abhijñatā
or experience, we have to consult
somebody. But God is svarāṭ.
Svarāṭ means He’s personally so
independent that He doesn’t
require to take knowledge from
anyone else. That is God. Svarāṭ.
Svarāṭ means fully independent.
That is God. Now how He
become? Svābhāvikī jñāna-bala-
kriyā ca. These are the
description in the Veda.
Svābhāvikī. His knowledge is very
natural. Svābhāvikī. Just like here
something itching. Immediately
my hand, attention, yes.
Svābhāvikī. It is not that I have
to think, “Now here it is itching,
what I have to do?” No, you
have… Immediately, hand
comes. Svābhāvikī, by nature.
Similarly when God has to create,
as soon as He desires “Let there
be a creation,” immediately
creation. He hasn’t got to think,
make a plan, how to do it, how
to execute it, where to get the
ingredients. No. His energies are
so perfect that as soon as He
desires, everything is there. That
is God.

Thank you very much.